Coating Method

Introduction

Many phasmid species (luckily) accept quite a wide range of food plants we have available in Europe, they are polyphagous. So it is quite easy to find alternative food plant for them. Yet on the other hand, there are species which are specialized feeders. They accept only a very limited range of food plants, they are to some degree "monophagous". And this makes it difficult if not even impossible for most of us to breed such choosy species. And to make things worse, often such species with specific food requirements are often are very interesting phasmids, sometimes very colorful

The Coating Method offers a solution, which allows us to such choosy species too. The underlying hypothesis behind this method is, that phasmids are mainly guided by their taste to decide which plant is the "right" food plant. And that implies that spezialized species have a taste for certain specific plants. And this discourages them from feeding on other plants which do not have the proper taste. Still other food plants, even though they do not "taste" right, could very well be good-enough food plants. If these specialized species would only accept these plants....

The Coating Method in a nutshell....a surrogate food plant is coated with a paste made from fine powder of a well accepted food plant by such a specialized species. This coated food plant is left to dry-up thoroughly before introduced to the cage with the nymphs. Then put the coated food plant in the cage with the nymphs, and hopefully they are allured to start feeding. After some time, they then get used to the taste of the surrogate food plant, and then they will also eat this plant without a coating.

Below you see a freshly hatched nymph of Marmessoidea quadriguttata "Kubah" feeding on Salal which is coated with laurel (Laurus nobilis)

Marmessoidea_quadriguttata_Kubah_Salal-with-laurel
 

A similar method is actually applied in human nutrition on a very regular basis, called food flavouring.

What is needed for the Coating Method

1) Leaf powder

  • Fresh leaves of a well-accepted food plant
  • Carefully desiccate these leaves (at temperatures ≤ 50°C)
  • Grind the dried leaves into a very fine powder (e.g. with an electric household spice mill / grinder). The finer the powder is, the better.
  • Use a very fine sieve to get the dust-fine powder separated from the fibrous parts
  • Leaf powder can be stored in the freezer for years on end. So make a good amount, then you will have enough for a long, long time

2) How to prepare the coating paste

  • Mix some leaf powder well with water in a small container
  • Add some apple powder (freeze dried) to the mixture. Many phasmid nymphs are very fond of apple juice (see apple slice trick). And the pectine in the apple powder will thicken the mixture and it turns viscous / pasty. This viscous-ness makes it easier to apply the mixture onto leaves, and it will stick better to the surrogate leaves. But do not add too much apple powder, otherwise the mixture will become too solid.
  • If one does not have apple powder, then one can add very little of Xanthan (a common and natural thickener). This will also make the mixture (plant powder + water) viscous
  • One can even mix different leaf powders into the same paste if need be. For example oak (Quercus spp.) and Eucalyptus leaf powder, for species like Eurycnema (which feed well on oak and Eucalyptus).
  • Leftover, ready-to-use coating paste can be kept in the freezer, to be used for another coating later on

3) Surrogate food plants

  • I prefer surrogate food plants which are hardy and stay fresh for as long as possible
  • A good choice is Salal (Gaultheria shallon), as it usually keeps fresh enough for 2 - 3 weeks, sometimes even longer
  • If Salal is not well accepted, then one can also try out other potential surrogate food plants, like bramble (Rubus spp.)

How this method works

Phase 1

Eurycnema versirubra
 
  • Cut away the leaf margins of the surrogate food plant
  • With a brush, apply a layer of the coating paste on both sides of the surrogate food plant leaves
  • Allow the coating to dry up thoroughly for some hours
  • Put the coated food plant in the cage with the nymphs
  • The pic shows an Eurycnema versirubra nymph feeding on bramble which is coated with a mix of oak and Euclyptus
  • Do not use any humid or wet substrate on the cage floor of a cage with coated plants, otherwise the coating will get mouldy very quickly
  • make sure that the humidity in the cage does not drop below 60% RH. Then the nymphs do not need an additional source for water. But also make sure that the humidity does not increase too much. Otherwise the coating on the leaves will get mould quickly, which will be dangerous for the nymphs
  • One can offer apple slice so that the nymphs get some additional humidity every 2 - 3 days, but remove the slices after one day
  • Usually after 1 week or so, the coating will get mouldy anyway. Then one has to put a fresh surrogate food plants with coating in the cage, and discard the old one

Phase 2

  • After nymphs have been fed for about 2 - 3 weeks with coated leaves, then one can wash off the coating
  • But the same plant again back into the cage, as there is still some "tasty" residue on these leaves. And this makes it easier for the nymphs to go on feed even without the coating
  • Once one has to replace the "old" surrogate food plant with a fresh twig, then just put the fresh one into the cage without a coating. But don't forget to cut away the edges of the leaves
  • By this time, the nymphs hopefully have adapted to the taste of the surrogate food plant - so that they will continue feeding without problems

Limitations of this method

  • There are specialized feeders with which this method does not work, maybe because the surrogate food plant does not have the proper ingredients to keep the nymphs healthy
  • An example for this is Oreophoetes topoense - a natural fern feeder. Nymph of this species are feeding well on bramble with a fern-coating. But such nymphs will not be as big as nymphs which feed on fern, and they die before they reach maturity
  • Also it was not possible to get nymphs of Eurynecroscia nigrofasciata "Tapah" nymphs to feed on a Litsea robusta coating, even though this species seems to feed on this plant in the wild

To be noted

  • Do never spray coated leaves with water
  • Some coatings do not get mouldy as quickly as others. Examples are coating prepared from Eucalyptus, oak (Quercus spp.), cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis). These plants have inherent fungistatic qualities

Freshly hatched nymphs of Marmessoidea sp. "Bach Ma", feeding on Salal with a laurel (Laurus nobilis) coating

Marmessoidea_quadriguttata_Kubah_Salal-with-laurel
 

An adult male of Micadina sp. "Cuc Phuong", feeding on bramble with an oak coating

Marmessoidea_quadriguttata_Kubah_Salal-with-laurel