Further Reading


BRAGG, P. E. (2001): Phasmids of Borneo. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, 772 pp.

BRIGGS, J. C. (1987): Biogeography and plate tectonics. Devision Palaeontology and Stratigraphy 10, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 204 pp.


BROCK, P. (1991): Stick Insects of Britain, Europe and the Mediterranean. Fitzgerald Publishing, London. 50 pp.

BROCK, P. D. (2001): Studies on the Australasian stick-insect genus Extatosoma Gray (Phasmida: Phasmatidae: Tropoderinae, Extatosomatini). Journal of Orthoptera Research, 10(2): 303-313.

BROCK P. D. (2004): Taxonomic notes on giant southern African stick insects (Phasmida), including the description of a new Bactrododema species. Annals of the Transvaal Museum, 41: 61-77.


BROCK, P. D. (2005): A new genus and four new species of South African stick insects. Phasmid Studies, 12( 1/2): 25-37.

BROCK, P. D. & HASENPUSCH, J. (2003): Studies on the leaf insects (Phasmida: Phylliidae) of Australia. Journal of Orthoptera Research, 11(2): 199-205.

BROCK, P. D. & HASENPUSCH, J. (2007): Studies on the Australian stick insects (Phasmida), including a checklist of species and bibliography. Zootaxa, 1570: 1-84.


CHEN, S. C. & HE, Y. (2007): Phasmatodea of China. China Forestry Publishing House. 476 pp, 3 plates.

CLIQUENNOIS, N. (2006): Révision partielle des Antongiliinae fondée sur l’étude des oeufs, comprenant la definition d’une nouvelle tribu et de quatre nouveaux fenres (Phasmatodea). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, 111(1): 157-172.


CLIQUENNOIS, N. (2007b): "Vivant, était vert avec des antennes rouges": extinction de Xenomaches incommodus, phasme endémique de 'ile Rodrigues (Phasmatodea). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, 112(3): 375-376.

CLIQUENNOIS, N. (2007a): Aperçu général de la diversité des phasmes de Madagascar (Insecta, Phasmatodea). Le Bulletin d’Arthropoda, 32(2): 3-16.

CLIQUENNOIS, N. & BROCK, P. D. (2002): Apterograeffea, un nouveau genre de Phasme de la Réunion et de l’île Ronde (Phasmatodea, Platycraninae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, 107(4): 387-395.

CLIQUENNOIS, N. & BROCK, P. D. (2004a): Révision de la tribu des Monandropterini, incluant la description d´une nouvelle espèce d´Heterophasma de la Réunion (Phasmatodea, Tropidoderinae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, 109(1): 41-59.


CLIQUENNOIS, N. & BROCK, P. D. (2004b): Phasmids of Mauritius: Mauritiophasma n. gen., Monoiognosis n. gen., Epicharmus Stål, 1875 and discussion on their remarkable eggs (Phasmatodea).  Journal of Orthoptera Research, 109(1): 41-59.

CONLE, O. V. & HHENNEMANN, F. H. (2002): Revision neotropischer Phasmatodea: Die Tribus Anisomorphini sensu Bradley & Galil 1977 (Insecta, Phasmatodea, Pseudophasmatidae). Spixiana, Supplement No. 28: 1-141, plates 1-19.

CONLE, O. V., HENNEMANN, F. H. & PEREZ-GELABERT, D. (2008): Studies on neotropical Phasmatodea II: Revision of the genus Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906, with the descriptions of seven new species (Phasmatodea: Pseudophasmatidae: Pseudophasmatinae). Zootaxa, 1748: 1-64.

COX, C. B. & MOORE, P. D. (1993): Biogeography. An ecological and evolutionary approach. 5th Ed. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 326 pp.

ELIOT, J. N. (1992): The butterflies of the Malay Peninsular (founded by A. S. Corbet & H. M. Pendlebury, with plates by B. D’Abrera), 4th revised edition. Kuala Lumpur (Malayan Nature Society), 595 pp., 69 pls.

HADLINGTON, P. & HOSCHKE, F. (1959): Observations on the ecology of the Phasmatid Ctenomorphodes tessulata (Gray). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, Sydney, 84: 146-159.

HENNEMANN, F. H. (1998): Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Phasmidenfauna von Sulawesi. Mit einem Katalog der bisher bekanntgewordenen Arten. Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, Zoologische Reihe 74: 95-128.

HENNEMANN, F. H. & CONLE, O. V. (2004): Revision of the tribe Achriopterini Bradley & Galil, 1977, with the description of a new genus, three new species and a new subspecies from Madagascar (Phasmatodea: Phasmatidae: Phasmatinae). Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 94: 5-54.

HENNEMANN, F. H. & CONLE, O. V. (2008): Revision of Oriental Phasmatodea: The tribe Pharnaciini Günther, 1953, including the description of the world’s longest insect, and a survey of the family Phasmatidae Gray, 1835 with keys to the subfamilies and tribes (Phasmatodea: „Anareolatae“: Phasmatidae). Zootaxa, XXXX.

HENNEMANN, F. H., CONLE, O. C. & ZHANG, W. W. (2008): Catalogue of the Stick and Leaf-insects (Phasmatodea) of China, with a faunistic analysis, review of recent ecological and biological studies and bibliography (Insecta: Orthoptera: Phasmatodea). Zootaxa, 1735: 1-77.

HERWAARDEN, H. van (1998): A guide to the genera of stick- and leaf-insects (Insecta: Phasmida) of New Guinea and the surrounding islands. Science in New Guinea, 24(2): 55-114.

HSIUNG, C.-C. (2007): Revision of the genus Megacrania Kaup (Cheleutoptera: Phasmatidae). Journal of Orthoptera Research, 16(2): 207-221.

HUXLEY, T. H. (1868): On the Classification and Distribution of the Alectoromorphae and Heteromorphae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, London, 1868: 294-319.

INGER, R. F. (1999): Distribution patterns of amphibians in Southern Asia and adjacent islands. In: DUELLMANN, W. E. [Ed.]: Patterns of Distribution of Amphians: A Global Perspective. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, pp. 445-482.

JEWELL, T. & BROCK, P. D. (2002): A review of the New Zealand stick insects: new genera and synonymy, keys and a catalogue. Journal of Orthoptera Research, 11(2): 189-197.

LANGLOIS, F. & LELONG, P. (1997): Phasmatodea de Guadeloupe. ASPER publishing, Sainte Foy d’Aigrefeuille,France. 88 pp.

LANGLOIS, F., LELONG, P. & DOREL, E. (2006): Phasmatodea of Saint Lucia. ASPER publishing, Sainte Foy d’Aigrefeuille, France. 68 pp.

LANGLOIS, F., LELONG, P., RASTEL, D. POLIDORI, E. & DOREL, E. (2000): Phasmatodea de Martinique. ASPER publishing, Sainte Foy d’Aigrefeuille, France. 74 pp.

LELONG, P., LANGLOIS, F., RASTEL, D. & DOREL, E. (2003): Phasmatodea of Dominica. ASPER publishing, Sainte Foy d’Aigrefeuille, France. 103 pp.

MELL, R. (1938): Beiträge zur Fauna sinica, V. Die Brahmaeiden und Eopterotidea Chinas. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 5: 337-494, pls. 3-13.

MORRONE, J. J. (2006): Biogeographic areas and transition zones of Latin America and the Caribbean Islands based on panbiogeographic and cladisctic anyleses of the Entomofauna. Annual Reviews of Entomology, 51: 467-497.

MÜLLER, P. (1977): Tiergeographie. Stuttgart.


NAKATA, S. (1961): Some notes on the occurence of Phasmatodea in Oceania. Pacific Insects Monograph, Honolulu, 2: 107-121.

NÄSSIG, W. A. & TREADAWAY, C. G. (1998): The Saturniidae (Lepidoptera) of the Philippines. Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, Frankfurt a. M., Suppl. 17 : 223-424.


OKADA, M. (1999): Nanafushi-No-Subete (All About Stick-Insects). Tonbo-Shuppan publishing, Osaka. 56 pp.

OTTE, D. & BROCK, P. (2005): Phasmid Species File. Catalog of Stick and Leaf Insects of the World, 2nd Edition. The Insect Diversity Association and the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. CafePress.com, 414 pp.

REHN, J.A.G. & REHN, J.W.H. (1939): The Orthoptera of the Philippine Islands. I. Phasmatidae, Obriminae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 90: 389-487.

RENSCH, B. (1980): Verteilung der Tierwelt im Raum. In: THENIUS, E. [Ed.]: Handbuch der Biologie, Teil 5. Grundzüge der Faunen- und Verbreitungsgeschichte der Säugetiere. Stuttgart.

SEOW-CHOEN, F. (2000): An Illustrated Guide to the Stick and Leaf Insects of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, 173 pp.

SIMPSON, G. G. (1977): Too many lines. The limits of the Oriental and Australian zoogeographic regions. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 121(2): 107-120.

VANE-WRIGHT, R. I. (1990): Chapter 2: The Philippines – Key to the biogeography of Wallacea ? In: KNIGHT, W. J. & HOLLOWAY, J. D. [Eds.]: Insects and the rain forest of South East Asia (Wallacea). Royal Entomological Society, London. Pp 19-34.

WALLACE, E. R. (1876): The Geographic Distribution of Animals. Macmillan, London.

ZOMPRO, O. (2001): A generic revision of the insect order Phasmatodea: The New World genera of the stick-insect Family Diapheromeridae: Diapheromerinae = Heteronemiidae: Heteronemiinae sensu Bradley & Galil, 1977. Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 108(1): 189-255.

ZOMPRO, O.  (2004): Revision of the genera of the Areolatae, including the status of Timema and Agathemera (Insecta, Phasmatodea). Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Hamburg, (NF)37: 1-327.

ZOMPRO, O. & GRÖßER, D. (2003): A generic revision of the insect order Phasmatodea: The genera of the areolate stick insect family Phylliidae (Walking Leaves). Spixiana, 26(2): 129-141.