Classification of the Phasmatodea

In contrast to many other insect-orders (e.g. Coleoptera, Lepidoptera) the Phasmatodea are only poorly studied so far. Followingly the systematization of the order is still a field of active research and still there is no classification available, which bases on the natural relationships. Temporarely the classification of BRADLEY & GALIL (1977) is widely used. It is a slightly updated version of GÜNTHER´s classification of 1953, includes numerous errors and is far away from a natural system. During the last three years scientists have started to work on a new, natural classification of the order again. Thus, there have already been several changes to the system since 1977 and many further changes can be expected for the future. Subsequently, another classification was published by KEVAN (1982), but this has not been widely used. The latest major changes to the system have been conducted by ZOMPRO (2004) and concern to the re-arrangement of the “Areolatae”. Several authors have already shown the “Areolatae” and “Anareolatae” to be unnatural, polyphyletic groups.

The following eight tables provide a historic survey of the different arrangements of Phasmatodea, starting with KIRBY (1904) and BRUNNER v.WATTENWYL & REDTENBACHER (1906-1908) up to the most recent and currently valid classification.


  1. BRUNNER v. WATTENWYL (1893)
  2. KIRBY (1904)
  3. BRUNNER v. WATTENWYL & REDTENBACHER (1906-1908) and KARNY (1923)
  4. GÜNTHER (1953)
  5. BRADLEY & GALIL (1977)
  6. KEVAN (1982)
  7. The„Areolatae“ after ZOMPRO (2004)
  8. The present classification (2008)















BRUNNER v. WATTENWYL, C. (1893): Révision du système des Orthoptères et description des espèces rapportées par M. Leonardo Fea de Birmanie. Annali de Museo Civico de Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria, Genova, (2)13(33): 76-101, 217-219 & pls. 2-4.


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