Museum Collections

World's Top 10 phasmid collections

Natural History Museum, London (NHMUK).
Natural History Museum, London (NHMUK).

The taxonomic importance of a scientific insect collection generally depends on the number of type specimens that are contained. From a taxonomic view the following ten phasmid museum collections are the most important ones in the world, because they house the largest amounts of type material: Vienna (NHMW), London (NHMUK), Paris (MNHN), Philadelphia (ANSP), Berlin (MNHU), Oxford (OUMNH), Geneve (MHNG), Genova (MCSN), Hamburg (ZMUH), Stockholm (NHRS) and Leiden (RMNH).

In view of their total size (number of specimens) the following three collections are the by far largest stick insect museum collections in the world: London (NHMUK), Philadelphia (ANSP) and Paris (MNHN).

The following is a list of all museums and institutions that inherit important phasmid collections with or without type material (scientific reference specimens). It is alphabetical in order to the officially used codes or abbreviations (EVENHUIS, N.L. (2018): The insect and spider collections of the world website.). The listed abbreviations do not strictly follow the rigid 4-letter code formula of collection depositories found in the book "The Insect and Spider Collections of the World" 2nd Edition by ARNETT et al. (1993) but give the abbreviations that are most commonly used by the collections themselves or have been traditionally used to indicate a particular depository. Further down a list of all museum catalogues of Phasmatodea type material is presented.

  • ABNR: Administration of Baishuijiang Natural Reserve, Gansu / China
  • AMNH: American Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology, New York / USA
  • AMNR: Administration of Maolan Natural Reserve, Guizhou / China
  • AMNZ: Auckland Institute and Museum, Auckland / New Zealand
  • AMSA: Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW / Australia
  • ANIC: Australian National Insect Collection, Canberra /Australia
  • ANDES-E: Universidad de Los Andes, Bogotá / Colombia
  • ANSP: Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / USA
  • BFU: Beijing Forestry University, Beijing / China
  • BMAG: Bristol Museum and Art Gallery, Bristol / UK
  • BMKB: Brunei Museum, Kota Batu / Brunei
  • BPBM: Bernice P. Bisoph Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii / USA
  • CASC: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California / USA
  • CAU: China Agricultural University, Beijing / China
  • CEBUC: Colección Entomológica del Programa de Biología, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales / Colombia
  • CEUA: Colección Entomológica de la Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín / Colombia
  • CMNH: Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania / USA
  • CMNZ: Canterbury Museum, Christchurch / New Zealand
  • CSLB: California State University, Long Beach, California / USA
  • CUIC: Cornell University Insect Collection, Ithaka, New York / USA
  • CUMZ: University Museum of Zoology, Insect Collection, Cambridge / UK
  • DBNU: Department of Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin / China
  • DCMD: Derby City Museum, Derby / England
  • DEIC: Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Eberswalde / Germany
  • ESALQ: Museo de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo / Brazil
  • ESUW: University of Wyoming, Wyoming / USA
  • ETHZ: Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Entomologisches Institut, Zürich / Switzerland
  • FICB: National Forest Insect Collection, Forest Research Institute, Lae / New Guinea
  • FIOC: Fundacão Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , Rio de Janeiro / Brazil
  • FRCS: Forest Research Centre, Sandakan, Sabah / Malaysia
  • FRIM: Forest Research Institute Kepong, Kuala Lumpur / Malaysia
  • GMC: Geological Museum of China, Beijing / China
  • GMNH: Georgia Museum of Natural History, Athens, Georgia / USA
  • HLDH: Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt / Germany
  • HMUG: Hunterian Museum, Glasgow / Scotland
  • HNHM: Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest / Hungary
  • IBSP: Instituto Biológico de São Paulo / Brazil
  • ICN: Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Bogotá / Colombia
  • ICRI: Institute of Entomology, Sun-Yat-sen University (Zhongshuan Univ.), Guangzhou / China
  • IEZU: Institute of Entomology, Zhongshuan University / China
  • IIBZ: Instituto de Investigaciones Botánicas y Zoológicas, Santo Domingo / Dominican Republic
  • IMLB: Instituto de Cienca Naturales e Miguel Lillo, Tucumán / Argentina
  • INBC: Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, San José / Costa Rica
  • INCA: Inca Science Ltd., Chongqing / China
  • ISNB: Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles, Brussels / Belgium
  • IZCAS: Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing / China
  • KNP: Kinabalu National Park Collection, Mount Kinabalu Head Quarters, Sabah / Malaysia
  • LACM: Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles, California / USA
  • LEM: Lyman Entomology Museum and Research Laboratory, Quebec / Canada
  • LKCNHM: Lee Kong China Natural History Museum / Singapore
  • MACN: Museo Argentino de Ciencas Naturales, Buenos Aires / Argentina
  • MECN: Museo Ecuadoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Quito / Ecuador
  • MBBJ: Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Bogor, Java / Indonesia
  • MCSN: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale „Giacomo Doria“, Genua / Italien.
  • MCZC: Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge / USA
  • MEFLG: Museo Entomológico Francisco Luis Gallego, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellín / Colombia
  • MHNG: Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Geneva / Switzerland
  • MHNR: Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Saint-Denis, La Réunion / France
  • MHN-UC: Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales / Colombia
  • MLUH: Wissenschaftsbereich Zoologie der Martin-Luther Universität, Halle (Saale) / Germany
  • MMUS: Macleay Museum, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW / Australia
  • MNCN: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid / Spain
  • MNHN: Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris / France
  • MNHNSD: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santo Domingo / Dominican Republic
  • MNHU: Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin / Germany
  • MNNC: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago / Chile
  • MNRJ: São Cristovão, Universidadae do Io de Janeiro, Museo Nacional, Rio de Janeiro / Brazil
  • MONZ: Museum of New Zealand, Wellington / New Zealand
  • MPEG: Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldli, Belém / Brazil
  • MRSN: Museo Regionale de Scienze Naturali, Torino / Italy
  • MSIRI: Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute, Le Réduit / Mauritius
  • MSNM: Museo Civico de Historia Natural, Milano / Italy
  • MUME: Manchester Museum, The University, Manchester / UK
  • MUSM: Museo de Historia Natural Javier Prado, Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Lima / Peru
  • MVMA: Museum of Victoria, Abbotsford, Victoria / Australia
  • MZLU: Museum of Zoology, Lund University / Sweden
  • MZSP: Museu de Zoologico de Universidade Sao Paulo / Brazil
  • NHMB: Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel / Switzerland
  • NHME: Natural History Museum, Maastricht / Netherlands
  • NHMJ: Natural History Museum of Jamaica, Kingston / Jamaica
  • NHMN: Natural History Museum, Nottingham / UK
  • NHMUK: Natural History Museum, London / UK
  • NHMW: Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna / Austria
  • NHRS: Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Sektion fur Entomology, Stockholm / Sweden
  • NHWD: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santo Domingo / Dominican Republic
  • NKU: Department of Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin / China
  • NLHD: Niedersächsisches Landesmuseum, Hannover / Germany
  • NMNS: National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung / Taiwan
  • NMVM: National Museum of Victoria, Melbourne, NSW / Australia
  • NTUC: Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei / Taiwan
  • NWAU: Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry, Yanglingzhen, Shaangxi / China
  • NZSI: National Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta / India
  • OKM: Oakland Museum, Oakland, California / USA
  • OUMNH: Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford / UK
  • PBZT: Parc botanique et zoologique de Tsimbazaza, Antananarivo / Madagascar
  • RMNH: Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden / Netherlands
  • RNV: Reserva Natural Vale, Espírito Santo, Linhares / Brazil
  • QDPC: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Indooroopilly, QLD / Australia
  • QMBA: Queensland Museum, Brisbane, QLD / Australia
  • SAMA: South Australian Museum, Adelaide, SA / Australia
  • SAMC: South African Museum, Iziko Museums of Cape Town, Cape Town / South Africa
  • SANC: National Collection of Insects, Pretoria / South Africa
  • SBC: Sarawak Biodiversity Centre, Kuching, sarawak / Malaysia
  • SBRC: Skukuza Biological Reference Collection, Kruger National Park, Skukuza / South Africa
  • SDM: San Diego Museum, San Diego, California / USA
  • SFDK: Sarawak Forestry Department, Kuching, Sarawak / Malaysia
  • SIES: Shanghai Institute of Entomology, Academia Sinica, Shanghai / China
  • SMFD: Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt am Main / Germany
  • SMNS: Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart / Germany
  • SMSM: Sarawak Museum, Kuching, Sarawak / Malaysia
  • SMTD: Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde, Dresden / Germany
  • SNMB: Staatliches Naturhistorisches Museum, Braunschweig / Germany
  • SNU: Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an / China
  • TMNH: Tianjin Natural History Museum, Tianjin / China
  • TMUH: Tasmanian Museum, Hobart / Tasmania
  • TMSA: Transvaal Museum, Pretoria / South Africa
  • TPNG: Central Reference Insect Collection, Department of Agriculture and Livestock, Port Moresby / Papua New Guinea.
  • UKM: Centre for Insect Systematics, Universiti Kebangsan, Bangi / Malaysia
  • UMMZ: University Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbour, Michigan / USA
  • UNIBO: University of Bologna, Bologna / Italy
  • UPNG: University of Papua New Guinea, Port Moresby / Papua New Guinea
  • UPPC: Museum of Natural History, University of the Philippines, Los Baños, Laguna / Philippines
  • UQIC: University of Queensland, Saint Lucia, QLD / Australia
  • UYIC: Facultad de Tristan Narvaja, Montevideo / Uruguay
  • USNM: United States National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C. / USA
  • UUZM: Uppsala University Zoological Museum, Uppsala / Sweden
  • WEIC: Wau Ecology Institute, Wau / Papua New Guinea
  • ZMAN: Zoologisch Museum, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam / Netherlands
  • ZMAS: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, St. Petersburg / Russia
  • ZMFK: Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum "Alexander König", Bonn / Germany
  • ZMNH: Zhejiang Museum of Natural History, Hangzhou / China
  • ZMUC: Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Department of Entomology, Copenhagen / Denmark
  • ZMUH: Zoologisches Museum und Universität Hamburg / Germany
  • ZMUK: Zoologisches Museum der Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel / Germany
  • ZMPA: Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa / Poland
  • ZRCS: Zoological Reference Collection, Raffles Museum, National University of Singapore / Singapore
  • ZSMC: Zoologische Staatssammlung, München, Munich / Germany
  • ZUMS: Zoological Collection, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Menggatal, Sabah / Malaysia.
The Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna, Austria (NHMW).
The Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna, Austria (NHMW).

Catalogues of type specimens

According to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) primary type specimens (holotypes, lectotypes and neotypes) of newly described species of organisms have to be deposited in official accessible collections of scientific research institutions or museums. Secondary types (paratypes or paralectotypes) may also be held in private collections, although this is not much recommended. Almost all type material of Phasmatodea is deposited in official collections around the world. Much of the type material is historic and from times when no definite type specimens had to be selected by the corresponding authors. This applies to almost all type material of species described in the 18th, 19th and early 20th century. Often the authors did not mention the number of specimens they had at hand and not even the depository.

During the late 20th century several workers have done great effort in visiting various museum collections around the world in order to trace, catalogue and photograph type specimens, which has resulted in the publishing of type catalogues for many of the important museum collections. Currently, museums and institutions have begun to digitalize their collections for making the material easier accessible for foreign scientists. All known depositories of type material of Phasmatodea can be found online in the Phasmid Species File, but often catalogues of certain collections are still very useful and of interest. The references below list all published type catalogues of Phasmatodea type material.

  • BRAGG, P.E. (1996): Type specimens of Phasmida in the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden (Insecta: Phasmida). Zoologische Mededelingen, Leiden, 70: 105-115.
  • BROCK, P.D. (1993): List of stick and leaf-insects (Phasmatodea = Phasmida) type Material in the Natural History Museum, published since Kirby´s 1904 Catalogue. Phasmid Studies, 2(1) : 17-24.
  • BROCK, P.D. (1997): Catalogue of stick-insect (Insecta: Phasmida) type material in the Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino. Bollettino del Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, 15(2): 299-312.
  • BROCK, P.D. (1998): Catalogue of type specimens of Stick- and Leaf-Insects in the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (Insecta: Phasmida). Kataloge der wissenschaftlichen Sammlungen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 13(5): 5-72.
  • BROCK, P. D. (1998): List of type specimens of stick-insects in the Zoologisch Museum, Universiteit van Amsterdam. Phasmid Studies, 7(1): 5-9.
  • BROCK, P.D. (1998): Type Material of stick-insects (Insecta: Phasmida) in the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. Steenstrupia, 24(1): 23-35.
  • BROCK, P.D. (1999): Phasmids in the National Museum, Prague, Czech Republic. Phasmid Studies, 7(2): 37-28.
  • BROCK, P.D. (2002): Linnean stick and leaf insect type material (Insecta: Phasmida). Bulletin de Phyllie, 11(1): 3-8.
  • BROCK, P.D. (2007): The types of Phasmida in the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg (ZMAS). Zootaxa, 1398: 45-56.
  • BROCK, P.D. & DELFOSSE, E. (2005): A list of Pantel’s Phasmid type material in the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris (Phasmida). Revue française d’Entomologie (N.S.), 27(2): 49-56.
  • BROCK, P.D., MARSHALL, J.A., BECCALONI, G. & HARMAN, A. (2016): The types of Phasmida in the Natural History Museum, London, UK. Zootaxa, 4179(2): 151-208.
  • CAMOUSSEIGHT, A. (1980): Catálogo de los Tipos de Insecta depositados en la colección del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (Santiago, Chile). Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago (Publicaión Ocasional No. 32). 45 pp.
  • HAHN, D.E. (1962): A list of the designated type specimens in the Macleay Museum. Insecta. The University of Sydney, Macleay Museum.
  • HENNEMANN, F.H. & CONLE, O.V. (1999): Typenmateral der Phasmatodea im Naturhistorischen Museum Basel. Entomologica Basiliensia, 21: 5-12.
  • HENNEMANN, F.H. & CONLE, O.C. (2003): Catalogue of the type specimens of Phasmatodea (Insecta) deposited in the Staatliche Museum für Naturkunde in Stuttgart. Stuttgarter Beitrage zur Entomologie, Serie A (Biologie), 651: 1-8.
  • HENNEMANN, F.H., CONLE, O.C. & ZHANG, W.W. (2007): Catalogue of the Stick and Leaf-insects (Phasmatodea) of China, with a faunistic analysis, review of recent ecological and biological studiesand bibliography (Insecta: Orthoptera: Phasmatodea). Zootaxa, 1735: 1-77.
  • KIRBY, W.F. (1904): A Synonymic Catalogue of Orthoptera. Vol. 1. Orthoptera, Euplexoptera, Cursoria et Gresoria (Forficulidae, Hemimeridae, Blattidae, Mantidae, Phasmidae). Longman & Co. London.  501 pp.
  • LAMPE, K.-H., INGRISCH, S., ROHWEDDER, D. & RACH, B.: Insect Types in ZFMK section Hymenoptera. Phasmatodea. 2 pp. [available online]
  • LIANA, A. (1996): A Note on the collection of Walkingsticks (Phasmatodea) in the Museum and Institute of Zoology of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw. Metaleptea, 16(1): 5.
  • OTTE, D. (1978): The primary types of Orthoptera (Saltatoria, Mantodea, Phasmatodea, and Blattodea) at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 130: 26-87.
  • PALMA, R.L., LOVIS, P.M. & TITHER, C. (1989): An annoted list of primary types of the phyla Arthropoda (except Crustacea) and Tardigrada held in the National Museum of New Zealand. National Museum of New Zealand, Miscellaneous Series, No. 20: 49.
  • PARIS, M. (1993): Catalogo de tipos de Orthopteroides (Insecta) de Ignacio Bolivar, I: Blattaria, Mantodea, Phasmoptera Y Orthoptera (Stenopelmatoidea, Rhaphidodhoroidea, Tettigigonioidea, Grylloidea, Terigoidea). Eos Madrid, 69: 143-264.
  • PASSERIN D´ENTRÈVES, P. (1981): Cataloghi. IV. Collezioni Ortotterologiche del Museo di Zoologia dell’Università di Torino. Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino. 127 pp.
  • PETERSEN, G. & GAEDIKE, H. (1970): Katalog der in den Sammlungen des Deutschen Entomologischen Institutes aufbewahrten Typen-II. Dermaptera, Mantodea, Blatteridae,Isoptera, Phasmida, Saltatoria. Beiträge zur Entomologie, 20(1/2): 145-172.
  • SEOW-CHOEN, F. (1998): List of stick-insects (Phasmida) in the collection of the Centre for Insect Systematics Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Serangga, 3(1): 87-92.
  • SJÖSTEDT, Y. (1933): Orthopterentypen im Naturhistorischen Reichsmuseum zu Stockholm. 7. Phasmidae. Arkiv för Zoologi, 25A(16): 1-10.
  • SMITH, A.Z. (1986): A History of the Hope Entomological Collection in the University Museum Oxford with lists of Archives and Collections. Clarendon Press, 172 pp.
  • VANSCHUYTBROECK, P. & COOLS, J. (1981): Catalogue et list du material typique des Phasmatodea conserve dans le collections Entomologiques de l`Institut Royal des sciences naturelles de Belgique. Orthopteroidea: Phasmatodea Jacobson & Bianci. Bulletin de Institut Royal Scientifique naturelle de Belge, 53(23): 1-26.
  • WEIDNER, H. (1966): Die Entomologischen Sammlungen des Zoologischen Staatsinstituts und Zoologischen Museums, Hamburg. Insecta III. Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburger Zoologischen Museum und Institut, 63: 209-264.
  • WILLEMSE, C. (1966): List of the types of Orthoptera in the collection of C. Willemse at the Naturhistorisch Museum of Maastricht. Publicaties van het Natuurhistorisch Genootschap in Limburg, 16: 43-73.
  • ZIMSEN, E. (1964): The type material of I. C. Fabricius. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 656 pp.
  • ZOMPRO, O. (1998): Die Stabschreckensammlung Johann Jakob Kaups. Hessisches Landes-Museum Darmstadt, Informationen, 1/98: 43-44.
  • ZOMPRO, O (1999): Die Phasmidensammlung des Übersee-Museums Bremen. TenDenZen Supplement 1999, Übersee-Museum Bremen, S. 61-70.
  • ZOMPRO, O. (2001): The type-material of Phasmatodea, described by Johann Jakob Kaup. Senckenbergiana Biologica, 81(1/2): 133-145.
  • ZOMPRO, O. (2002): Catalogue of type material of the insect order Phasmatodea at the Zoologisches Museum der Universität Hamburg (Insecta: Orthoptera: Phasmatodea). Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburger Zoologischen Museum und Institut, 99: 179-201.
  • ZOMPRO, O. (2003): Catalogue of type-material of the insect-order Phasmatodea deposited in the Museum für Tierkunde, Dresden, Germany. Phasmid Studies, 11(2): 3144.
  • ZOMPRO, O. (2005): Catalogue of type-material of the insect order Phasmatodea, housed in the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany and in the Institut für Zoologie der Martin-Luther-Universität in Halle (Saale), Germany. Mitteilungen des Museums für Naturkunde in Berlin, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 52(2): 251-290.
  • ZOMPRO, O. & BROCK, P.D. (2003): Catalogue of type-material of stick-insects housed in the Muséum d´histoire naturelle, Geneva, with descriptions of some new taxa (Insecta: Phasmatodea). Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 110(1): 3-43.
  • ZOMPRO, O. & DOMENICO, F.C. de (2005): Catalogue of the type material of Phasmatodea (Insecta) deposited in Brazilian Museums. Iheringia, Sér. Zoologico, Porto Alegre, 95(3): 255-259.